The raster functions allow you to define processing operations that can be applied to one or more rasters. These functions are applied to the raster data on the fly as the data is accessed and viewed. This means they can be applied quickly, without the time it would otherwise take to create a processed file on disk. The raster functions are organized within a Raster function template, allowing you to create various processed products by chaining together multiple functions.

Global raster functions can be chained together with other functions, but they process data on a specified resolution and extent. Global functions can be identified by the hammer icon. They work similarly like geoprocessing tools, and can even use environment settings that you specify. To learn more about this, see Global functions.

All local raster functions-more than 100-support multidimensional rasters as inputs. Global functions do not support multidimensional rasters as inputs.

You can change the properties of a raster function on the General tab, including the name, description, output pixel type, and multidimensional rules.

## Analysis

Function name | Description |
---|---|

Binary Thresholding function | Divides your raster into two distinct classes using the Otsu method, which distinguishes between background and foreground in imagery by creating two classes with minimal intraclass variance. |

Heat Index function | Calculates the apparent temperature, based on air temperature and humidity. |

Kernel Density function | Calculates a magnitude-per-unit area from point or polyline features, using a kernel function to fit a smoothly tapered surface to each point or polyline. An Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. |

NDVI function | Calculates the Normalized Vegetation Differential Index (NDVI) values using the red and near-infrared bands. |

NDVI Colorized function | Computes the NDVI from the input image and applies a color map to the result. |

Tasseled Cap Transformation function | Provides standardized detection of man-made features, soil, and vegetation by measuring levels of brightness, vegetation, and wetness. |

Overlays several rasters using a common measurement scale and weights each according to its importance. A Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. | |

Weights and adds an array of rasters on a cell-by-cell basis. An Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. | |

Wind Chill function | Calculates the apparent temperature, based on air temperature and wind speed. |

## Appearance

Function name | Description |
---|---|

Contrast and Brightness function | Adjusts the difference between colors and overall lightness of the image. |

Convolution function | Filters an image, which can be used to sharpen, blur, detect edges within an image, or other kernel-based enhancements. |

Pansharpen function | Enhances the spatial resolution of a multiband image by fusing it with a higher-resolution panchromatic image. |

Statistics and Histogram function | Defines the descriptive statistics for a dataset or uses the distribution from another dataset. |

Stretch function | Enhances an image by changing properties, such as brightness, contrast, and gamma through multiple stretch types. |

## Classification

##### Note:

An Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use the Classify, ML Classify, and Segment Mean Shift functions.

Function | Description |
---|---|

Classify function | Applies the appropriate classifier and associated training data specified in the .ecd training file to a raster dataset or segmented raster. |

ML Classify function | Uses the maximum likelihood algorithm to assign pixels to a class. |

Region Grow function | Grows regions from seed points. |

Segment Mean Shift function | Groups pixels that are adjacent and have similar spectral and/or spatial characteristics into segments. This can be used as a second raster in the Classify function. |

## Conversion

Function | Description |
---|---|

Color Model Conversion function | Converts the color model of an image from either the HSV (hue, saturation, and value) model to RGB (red, green, and blue), or from RGB to HSV. |

Colormap function | Transforms the pixel values to display the raster data as a grayscale or a red, green, blue (RGB) image, based on a color map. |

Converts a single-band raster with a color map to a three-band RGB (red, green, and blue) raster. | |

Complex function | Derives the magnitude from RADARSAT data so it can be displayed. |

Grayscale function | Converts a multiband raster into a single-band grayscale raster. |

LAS Dataset To Raster function | The LAS Dataset To Raster function is used to render lidar data managed using the LAS dataset. The function will be used when you add lidar data to a mosaic dataset using the LAS Dataset raster type. With this function, you need to specify both input and output properties. Due to the resolution of the data and the time it can take to convert the point data to raster data, this function will write preprocessed raster data files to an output location (as cache). |

LAS to Raster function | The LAS To Raster function is used to render lidar data stored using the LAS file format. The function will be used when you add lidar data to a mosaic dataset using the LAS raster type. |

Rasterize Attributes function | Enriches a raster by adding bands derived from values of specified attributes from an external table or a feature service. |

Rasterize Features function | Converts features to raster. Features are assigned pixel values based on the feature's field, such as OBJECTID. Optionally, the pixel values can be based on a user-defined value field in the input feature's attribute table. |

Spectral Conversion function | Applies a matrix to a multiband image to convert a false color image to a pseudo color image. |

Terrain To Raster function | The Terrain To Raster function is used to render multipoint data managed using a terrain stored in a geodatabase. |

Unit Conversion function | Converts from one unit of measurement to another. |

Vector Field function | Converts data with magnitude and direction values into vectors. |

## Correction

Function | |
---|---|

Apparent Reflectance function | Adjusts image brightness values based on sun elevation, acquisition date, and the gain and bias settings for each band. The applicable sensors are Landsat, IKONOS, and QuickBird. |

Geometric function | Orthorectifies imagery by incorporating an elevation model. |

Sentinel-1 Radiometric Correction | Performs radiometric calibration for Sentinel 1 datasets. Works with both GRD (Ground Range Detection) and SLC (Single Look Complex) products. |

Sentinel-1 Thermal Noise Removal | Performs thermal noise removal for Sentinel-1 datasets. Works with both GRD (Ground Range Detection) and SLC (Single Look Complex) products. |

Radar Calibration function | Calibrates RADARSAT-2 datasets so the pixel values are a true representation of the backscatter. Radar calibration is not available for RADARSAT-2 SSG or SPG products. |

Speckle function | Smooths out noise from radar datasets while seeking to preserve sharp edges of features. |

## Data management

Function | Description |
---|---|

Attribute Table function | Uses an attribute table to symbolize a single-band raster. This is useful when you want to present imagery with specific labels and colors. If your table contains fields named red, green, and blue, values within those fields will be used like a color map when rendering the image. |

Buffered function | Buffers the last accessed pixel blocks. |

Cached Raster function | The Cached Raster function creates a preprocessed cache at the point in the function chain where it's added. It is typically inserted in a function chain preceding the functions that can impede performance due to more computationally intensive processing. These functions can include Convolution, Band Arithmetic, Pansharpen, and Geometric, as well as multiple Arithmetic functions. |

Clip function | Clips a raster using a rectangular shape according to the extents defined or clips a raster to the shape of an input polygon feature class. The shape defining the clip can clip out the extent of the raster, or clip out an area within the raster. |

Composite Bands function | Combines multiple rasters into one multiband raster. |

Constant function | Creates a virtual raster with a single pixel value that can be used in raster function templates and to process a mosaic dataset. |

Expands specified zones of a raster by zones by a specified number of cells. A Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. | |

Extract Bands function | Reorders or extracts bands from a raster. |

Interpolate Irregular Data function | Interpolates from point clouds or irregular grids. |

Key Metadata function | Allows you to insert or override key metadata of a raster. Key metadata is extracted from the raster's metadata and is generally associated with the following: a raster product, a mosaic dataset created using the product description, each raster within a mosaic dataset that was added using specific raster types. |

Mask function | Creates NoData by defining a range of pixel values. Any values outside the range return as NoData. |

Merge Raster function | The Merge Rasters function represents a grouped or merged collection of rasters. It is useful when you have multiple rasters that you want treated as a single item, for example, to calculate the same statistics for all, or to treat as one image when color balancing (thereby, not color balancing each image separately). This is useful for some satellite imagery that is stored as separate tiles to reduce the file size of each but should be considered part of the same image. |

Mosaic Rasters function | Stitches a set of raster datasets together to create one dataset. |

Replaces selected cells of a raster with the value of their nearest neighbor. This is useful for editing areas of a raster in which the data may be erroneous. A Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. | |

RasterInfo | The Raster Info function modifies properties of the raster, such as bit depth, a NoData value, cell size, extent, and so on. |

Recast function | Dynamically modifies the function parameter used in a mosaic dataset or image service without physically persisting the changes. |

Records, for each cell in the output, the identity of the connected region to which that cell belongs. A unique number is assigned to each region. A Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. | |

Reproject function | Modifies the projection of a raster dataset, mosaic dataset, or raster item in a mosaic dataset. It can also resample the data to a new cell size and define an origin. |

Resample function | Changes the spatial resolution of a dataset. |

Shrinks specified zones of a raster by a specified number of cells. A Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. | |

Swath function | Interpolates from irregular grids or swath data. |

Transpose Bits function | Unpacks the bits of the input pixel and maps them to specified bits in the output pixel. The purpose of this function is to manipulate bits from a couple inputs, such as the Landsat 8 quality band products. |

## Distance

##### Note:

The Spatial Analyst license is required to use the Distance functions.

Function name | Description |
---|---|

Calculates the sum of accumulative costs for two input accumulative cost rasters. | |

Calculates, for each cell, its least-cost source based on the least accumulative cost over a cost surface. | |

Defines the neighbor that is the next cell on the least-accumulative cost path to the least-cost source. | |

Calculates the least-accumulative cost distance for each cell from or to the least-cost source over a cost surface. | |

Calculates the least-cost path from a source to a destination. | |

Calculates, for each cell, the nearest source based on Euclidean distance. | |

Calculates, for each cell, the direction, in degrees, to the neighboring cell along the shortest path back to the closest source while avoiding barriers. | |

Calculates, for each cell, the direction, in degrees, to the nearest source. | |

Calculates, for each cell, the Euclidean distance to the closest source. | |

Calculates the least-cost path from a source to a destination. The least accumulative cost distance is calculated for each cell over a cost surface, to the nearest source. This produces an output raster that records the least-cost path, or paths, from selected locations to the closest source cells defined within the accumulative cost surface, in terms of cost distance. | |

Calculates, for each cell, the least accumulative cost distance from or to the least-cost source, while accounting for surface distance along with horizontal and vertical cost factors. | |

Calculates the least-cost source for each cell based on the least accumulative cost over a cost surface, while accounting for surface distance along with horizontal and vertical cost factors. | |

Defines the neighbor that is the next cell on the least accumulative cost path to the least-cost source, while accounting for surface distance along with horizontal and vertical cost factors. |

## Hydrology

##### Note:

The Spatial Analyst license is required to use the Hydrology functions.

Function | Description |
---|---|

Fills sinks and peaks in an elevation surface raster to remove small imperfections in the data. | |

Creates a raster layer of accumulated flow into each cell. A weight factor can optionally be applied. | |

Creates a raster layer of flow direction from each cell to its steepest downslope neighbor. | |

Computes the minimum downslope horizontal or vertical distance to cell(s) on a stream or river into which they flow. | |

Creates a raster layer of upstream or downstream distance, or weighted distance, along the flow path for each cell. | |

Creates a raster layer identifying all sinks or areas of internal drainage. | |

Snaps pour points to the cell of highest flow accumulation within a specified distance. | |

Assigns unique values to sections of a raster linear network between intersections. | |

Creates a raster layer that assigns a numeric order to segments of a raster representing branches of a linear network. | |

Determines the contributing area above a set of cells in a raster. |

## Math

##### Note:

The Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use the Math functions, except for Arithmetic and Band Arithmetic.

Abs function | Calculates the absolute value of the pixels in a raster. |

Arithmetic function | Uses the pixel values to calculate mathematical operations on overlapping rasters. |

Band Arithmetic function | Calculates indexes using the predefined formulas or user-defined expressions. |

Calculator function | Computes a raster from a mathematical expression based on the raster bands. |

Divide function | Divides the values of two rasters on a pixel-by-pixel basis. |

Exp function | Calculates the base e exponential of the pixels in a raster. |

Exp10 function | Calculates the base 10 exponential of the pixels in a raster. |

Exp2 function | Calculates the base 2 exponential of the pixels in a raster. |

Float function | Converts each pixel value of a raster into a floating-point representation. |

Int function | Converts each pixel value of a raster to an integer by truncation. |

Ln function | Calculates the natural logarithm (base e) of each pixel in a raster. |

Log10 function | Calculates the base 10 logarithm of each pixel in a raster. |

Log2 function | Calculates the base 2 logarithm of each pixel in a raster. |

Minus | Subtracts the value of the second input raster from the value of the first input raster on a pixel-by-pixel basis. |

Mod function | Finds the remainder (modulo) of the first raster when divided by the second raster on a pixel-by-pixel basis. |

Negate function | Changes the sign (multiplies by -1) of the pixel values of the input raster on a pixel-by-pixel basis. |

Plus function | Adds (sums) the values of two rasters on a pixel-by-pixel basis. |

Power function | Raises the pixel values in a raster to the power of the values found in another raster. |

Round Down function | Returns the next lower integer, as a floating-point value, for each pixel in a raster. |

Round Up function | Returns the next higher integer, as a floating-point value, for each pixel in a raster. |

Square function | Calculates the square of the pixel values in a raster. |

Square Root function | Calculates the square root of the pixel values in a raster. |

Times function | Multiplies the values of two rasters on a pixel-by-pixel basis. |

## Math: Conditional

The Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use the Math: Conditional functions.

Con function | Performs a conditional if/else evaluation on each of the input cells of an input raster. |

Set Null function | Set Null sets identified cell locations to NoData based on a specified criteria. It returns NoData if a conditional evaluation is true, and returns the value specified by another raster if it is false. |

## Math: Logical

The Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use the Math: Logical functions.

Bitwise And function | Performs a Bitwise And operation on the binary values of two input rasters. |

Bitwise Left Shift function | Performs a Bitwise Left Shift operation on the binary values of two input rasters. |

Bitwise Not function | Performs a Bitwise Not (complement) operation on the binary value of an input raster. |

Bitwise Or function | Performs a Bitwise Or operation on the binary values of two input rasters. |

Bitwise Right Shift function | Performs a Bitwise Right Shift operation on the binary values of two input rasters. |

Bitwise Xor function | Performs a Bitwise eXclusive Or operation on the binary values of two input rasters. |

Boolean And function | Performs a Boolean And operation on the pixel values of two input rasters. If both input values are true (nonzero), the output value is 1. If one or both input values are false (zero), the output value is 0. |

Boolean Not function | Performs a Boolean Not (complement) operation on the pixel values of the input raster. If the input values are true (nonzero), the output value is 0. If the input values are false (zero), the output value is 1. |

Boolean Or function | Performs a Boolean Or operation on the cell values of two input rasters. If one or both input values are true (nonzero), the output value is 1. If both input values are false (zero), the output value is 0. |

Boolean Xor function | Performs a Boolean eXclusive Or operation on the cell values of two input rasters. If one input value is true (nonzero) and the other value is false (zero), the output value is 1. If both input values are true or both are false, the output value is 0. |

Equal To function | Performs an equal-to operation on two rasters on a pixel-by-pixel basis. |

Greater Than function | Performs a Relational greater-than operation on two inputs on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Returns a value of 1 for pixels where the first raster is greater than the second raster and a value of 0 for pixels where the first raster is not greater than the second raster. |

Greater Than Equal function | Performs a Relational greater-than-or-equal-to operation on two inputs on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Returns a value of 1 for pixels where the first raster is greater than or equal to the second raster and a value of 0 for pixels where the first raster is not greater than or equal to the second raster. |

Is Null function | Determines which values from the input raster are NoData on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Returns a value of 1 if the input value is NoData and a value of 0 for pixels that are not NoData. |

Less Than function | Performs a Relational less-than operation on two inputs on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Returns a value of 1 for pixels where the first raster is not less than the second raster. |

Less Than Equal function | Performs a Relational less-than-or-equal-to operation on two inputs on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Returns a value of 1 for pixels where the first raster is less than or equal to the second raster and a value of 0 where it is not less than or equal to the second raster. |

Not Equal function | Performs a Relational not-equal-to operation on two inputs on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Returns a value of 1 for pixels where the first raster is not equal to the second raster and a value of 0 for pixels where it is equal to the second raster. |

## Math: Trigonometric

The Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use the Math: Trigonometric functions.

ACos function | Calculates the inverse cosine of the pixels in a raster. |

ACosH function | Calculates the inverse hyperbolic cosine of the pixels in a raster. |

ASin function | Calculates the inverse sine of the pixels in a raster. |

ASinH function | Calculates the inverse hyperbolic sine of the pixels in a raster. |

ATan function | Calculates the inverse tangent of the pixels in a raster. |

ATan2 function | Calculates the inverse tangent (based on x,y) of the pixels in a raster. |

ATanH function | Calculates the inverse hyperbolic tangent of the pixels in a raster. |

Cos function | Calculates the cosine of the pixels in a raster. |

CosH function | Calculates the hyperbolic cosine of the pixels in a raster. |

Sin function | Calculates the sine of the pixels in a raster. |

SinH function | Calculates the hyperbolic sine of the pixels in a raster. |

Tan function | Calculates the tangent of the pixels in a raster. |

TanH function | Calculates the hyperbolic tangent of the pixels in a raster. |

## Reclass

Creates a new raster by looking up values found in another field in the table of the input raster. | |

Allows you to group pixel values together and assign the group a new value. | |

Allows you to remap pixels in a raster based on zones defined in another raster and zone-dependent value mapping defined in a table. |

## Statistical

Orders raster bands into an array and identifies the band that has the minimum, maximum, median, or duration of pixel values. | |

Calculates statistics from multiple rasters on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The available statistics are Majority, Maximum, Mean, Median, Minimum, Minority, Range, Standard Deviation, Sum, and Variety. An Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. | |

Calculates statistics on the cells within a neighborhood around each cell of an input raster. Several shapes of neighborhood are available. An Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. | |

Defines a neighborhood and calculates the statistics within those pixels. | |

Calculates statistics on values of a raster within the zones of another dataset. An Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. |

## Surface

Function | |
---|---|

Aspect function | Shows the direction that each pixel is facing. |

Aspect-Slope function | Creates a raster layer that simultaneously displays the aspect and slope of a surface. |

Contour function | The Contour function generates contour lines by joining points with the same elevation from a raster elevation dataset. The contours are isolines created as rasters for visualization. |

Curvature function | Calculates the curvature of a raster surface, optionally including profile and plan curvature. |

Elevation Void Fill function | Creates pixels where holes exist in your elevation data. |

Hillshade function | Creates a 3D representation of the surface, with the sun's relative position taken into account for shading the image. |

Shaded Relief function | Creates a multiband, color-coded, 3D representation of the surface. The sun's relative position is taken into account for shading the image. |

Slope function | Calculates the rate of change from one pixel value to its neighbors. |

Determines the raster surface locations visible to a set of observer features using geodesic methods. An Image Analyst or Spatial Analyst license is required to use this function. |