Geoprocessing is a fundamental part of GIS operations. Geoprocessing provides data analysis, data management, and data conversion tools. A geoprocessing service is a collection of geoprocessing tools published to a server site to perform tasks necessary for manipulating and analyzing geographic information across a wide range of disciplines.
Geoprocessing services allow you to share custom analysis tools in ArcGIS Server, a component of ArcGIS Enterprise. Data is stored and processing occurs on the server site, rather than on your machine. This makes it possible for multiple client applications to run analysis using the same geoprocessing service, even concurrently. Though geoprocessing services can be directly accessed on a server site and integrated into web apps, they often run web tools hosted in the ArcGIS Enterprise portal.
A geoprocessing service can contain one or more tools that use input data entered in a client application, process it, and return output in the form of features, maps, reports, or files. These tools are first authored and run in ArcGIS Pro, typically as custom model or script tools, before being shared to a server.
Because a geoprocessing service can reference any geoprocessing tool, it can be used for many things including the following examples:
- Calculate the probable evacuation area for a hazardous chemical spill.
- Calculate the predicted track and strength of a hurricane.
- Generate a report of land cover and soils within a specified watershed.
- Produce a parcel map with historical details of ownership.
- Geocode an address and use that in a permitting application for a home renovation system.
If you are connected to the ArcGIS Server, you can access and use the geoprocessing service. You can make a connection to the server site and access and use the service directly.
You can publish a geoprocessing service from ArcGIS Pro to a stand-alone server (one that is not federated with an ArcGIS Enterprise portal) using an administrator connection.
If you are working with a server site that's federated with an ArcGIS Enterprise portal, you instead share web tools to the portal. Web tools are run by geoprocessing services; sharing a web tool to your portal automatically publishes one or more geoprocessing services to the federated server site.
A stand-alone server site can be federated with an ArcGIS Enterprise portal. After the server is federated, the pre-existing geoprocessing service published before federation has its own portal item and behaves in the same way as a web tool. All the geoprocessing analysis results you publish to the federated server from ArcGIS Pro are web tools. Starting from ArcGIS Pro 2.9 and ArcGIS Enterprise 10.9.1, you can federate a stand-alone server from ArcGIS Enterprise on Kubernetes and publish to the server. You can only publish from ArcGIS Pro 2.9 to ArcGIS Enterprise on Kubernetes, not from ArcGIS Desktop.
Geoprocessing services, desktop tools
If you have run and used geoprocessing tools in ArcGIS Pro, the experience is similar for running geoprocessing services. The main difference between geoprocessing services and desktop geoprocessing tools is that you run a geoprocessing service remotely, running the task on a server computer using the resources of the server computer, as opposed to a desktop computer.
Author and publish geoprocessing services in ArcGIS Pro
When working with a stand-alone ArcGIS Server site, you can transform geoprocessing tools into geoprocessing services and consume them in ArcGIS Pro. Once a service has published, other ArcGIS Server users can also use it, if you share it with them.
To author a geoprocessing service, you typically create and document a geoprocessing tool using ModelBuilder or Python. You do not need to create a custom tool, however, you can also use one of the many tools included in ArcGIS.
Once you've authored a tool, you must first run it in ArcGIS Pro, and the tool must complete successfully. When the tool is finished running, you can share it; sharing creates the geoprocessing service item in the server connection. You can add multiple tools that you've run to the same geoprocessing service during publishing.
Use geoprocessing services
Once a geoprocessing service has been published to ArcGIS Server (including when a web tool is shared to a portal with a federated server site), authorized users can access the service directly on the server site using various operations in ArcGIS REST API, work with it in ArcGIS Pro, Geoprocessing widgets in the Web AppBuilder, custom web apps with ArcGIS REST JS, and more.
Learn more about the geoprocessor in ArcGIS REST JS.
Review additional general considerations when using geoprocessing services.