You can connect from ArcGIS clients and work with the data in the database management systems, database files, or data warehouse appliances listed here. To see a description of functionality available when working with databases from ArcGIS, see Databases, data warehouses, and ArcGIS.
Database management systems and data warehouses differ from each other in how they are implemented and the functionality they provide. As a result, there are sometimes caveats or rules you need to be aware of when working with each source type in ArcGIS. These are listed in the following sections.
Spatial data is stored in the Dameng geometry type. A typical installation of Dameng includes a spatial type; however, you must initialize it to use it.
Db2 authenticates connections to the database using operating system logins. However, when you connect to Db2 from the Database Connections dialog box or the Create Database Connection geoprocessing tool, you can specify the Database authentication option. This allows you to save the specific user name and password of the login, which is required if you will register the database connection with ArcGIS Server.
Microsoft SQL Server
Although Microsoft allows SQL Server user accounts to write data to schemas of any name, ArcGIS requires that user accounts that create tables, views, or other objects in the database have identical user names and schema names. For example, you cannot connect from ArcGIS as elmer and write to a schema named dataowner.
ArcGIS supports Oracle SDO_Geometry and Esri ST_Geometry spatial types in Oracle databases. SDO_Geometry is a separate, third-party installation. To use the Esri ST_Geometry type to store spatial data, copy the ST_Geometry shape library to your Oracle machine and run the Create Spatial Type geoprocessing tool to create the ST_Geometry type, subtypes, and functions.
ArcGIS supports PostGIS geometry and geography types and the Esri ST_Geometry spatial type in PostgreSQL databases. PostGIS is a separate, third-party installation. To use the Esri ST_Geometry type to store spatial data, copy the st_geometry library into your PostgreSQL installation and run the Create Spatial Type geoprocessing tool to create the ST_Geometry type, subtypes, views, and functions.
Although PostgreSQL allows user accounts to write data to schemas of any name, ArcGIS requires that user accounts that create tables, views, or other objects in the database have identical user names and schema names. For example, you cannot connect from ArcGIS with the user name vlad and write to the public schema.
Keep the following information in mind when using SAP HANA:
- SAP HANA uses columnar data storage, which behaves as its own index. Therefore, the spatial columns in SAP HANA tables do not require a spatial index for query performance.
- SAP HANA does not use user-defined indexes; therefore, you do not manage or rebuild indexes on tables in SAP HANA.
- When you load data into SAP HANA, the spatial reference used by the data must exist in the SAP HANA system table.
- SAP HANA redefined its spatial reference system EPSG ID 4326 from a planar representation of WGS84 to a round-earth representation. Tables that store spatial data in SAP HANA with spatial reference system 4326 may not behave as expected in ArcGIS.
The round-earth implementation of WGS84 (EPSG ID: 4326) in SAP HANA contains key limitations that make it unsuitable when working with certain types of data. For example, global datasets that exceed hemisphere boundaries or cross-hemisphere boundary lines return inconsistent results. Data you create or load using ArcGIS continues to be stored using a planar version of the WGS84 (EPSG ID 1000004326) coordinate system to ensure that ArcGIS can work with all types of data. However, ArcGIS can read round-earth WGS data that you create in SAP HANA using SQL or a third-party product.
- SAP HANA stores spatial reference system information in its ST_SPATIAL_REFERENCE_SYSTEMS system view. Spatial data you load into SAP HANA must either have a null spatial reference or use a spatial reference that exists in the ST_SPATIAL_REFERENCE_SYSTEMS system view. If this view does not contain the spatial reference system for data you want to load, use the SAP HANA CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM Statement to update the view with the spatial reference system you need.
More information can be found in the CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM page of the SAP HANA Spatial Reference documentation.
If the spatial data you import or copy to your SAP HANA database does not have a spatial reference defined, SAP HANA assigns a default SRID of 0, a Cartesian spatial reference system that works with data on a flat 2D plane.
SQLite and OGC GeoPackage
Being self-contained, SQLite and GeoPackage files are useful for exchanging data between or embedding data in software packages.
Both these file types are significantly different from the other databases that ArcGIS supports.
- They are files; therefore, access is controlled through the folder in which you store the file. Set privileges on the folder to limit who can access its contents.
- To access a SQLite database, ArcGIS requires that the database file have the extension .sqlite. You can use Esri ST_Geometry or SpatiaLite to store and access spatial data in a database file with an .sqlite extension.
- To access a GeoPackage, ArcGIS requires that the file have the extension .gpkg.
- You can use only one spatial storage type per SQLite database. See Spatially enable an SQLite database for information on adding a spatial storage type to an existing database.
- Field data type definitions are not enforced by SQLite or the OGC GeoPackage.
- You cannot publish data in SQLite or GeoPackage files.
To create an SQLite database that uses either ST_Geometry or SpatiaLite storage, or to create a GeoPackage, use the Create SQLite Database geoprocessing tool.
You control access to an SQLite database or GeoPackage by controlling permissions on the folder where it is stored. Unlike other databases, you do not create users who are authenticated by the database or grant privileges on specific datasets to other users.
When you connect from ArcGIS to SQLite or a GeoPackage, you add a connection to the folder.
SQLite and GeoPackage files can be read by multiple users, but do not update the database or any of its contents while someone else is editing data or updating the database. For example, do not append data into an existing table or create a table in the database while someone else is loading data or creating a table in the database.
SQLite is also different from other databases in that fields are not assigned specific data types and data type definitions are not strictly enforced. Instead, SQLite uses storage classes in which values of different data types can be stored.
ArcGIS, however, can only work with one data type per field and strictly enforces data types. You should be aware of this difference in data type enforcement when viewing SQLite data in ArcGIS.
The following example creates a table with integer and text fields:
CREATE TABLE mytable ( id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL, item TEXT, weight INTEGER, store TEXT;
Even though the weight field is defined as an integer, SQLite will allow you to store numbers with decimals in it. It will also allow you to store text in it. For example, you can insert the following records:
INSERT INTO mytable (id, item, weight, store) VALUES( 1, "magnetic dual elliptical trainer with seat", 75, "CardioPlus Equipment" ); INSERT INTO mytable (id, item, weight, store) VALUES( 2, "superfit treadmill4000", 81.2, "Sports Pit" ); INSERT INTO mytable (id, item, weight, store) VALUES( 3, "serenity yoga mat", .4588, "Aerobic Angels Sporting Goods" ); INSERT INTO mytable (id, item, weight, store) VALUES( 4, "swim fins", "two", "The Plunge" );
However, the values appear as follows in ArcGIS because the weight field is defined as integer:
magnetic dual elliptical trainer with seat
serenity yoga mat
Aerobic Angels Sporting Goods
See DBMS data types supported in ArcGIS for a list of which SQLite data types map to which ArcGIS data types.
Teradata Data Warehouse Appliance
To connect from ArcGIS to a Teradata Data Warehouse Appliance, you must install the Teradata GSS client, ICU library, and ODBC driver on the ArcGIS client machines in a specific order. See Connect to Teradata for information.
The following is a list of guidelines for using a Teradata Data Warehouse Appliance with ArcGIS:
- The spatial columns in your tables must
be named shape or aliased to shape in a view.
The underlying storage for the TeradataST_Geometry type is CLOB; therefore, the name or alias of the column (shape) is the only way ArcGIS can identify that the column stores spatial data.
- When you add tables to Teradata from an ArcGIS client, ArcGIS always creates the tables in the user's own database. ArcGIS does not support creating tables in a database other than the user's own database. (The user and database must have the same name.) Tables added outside of ArcGIS do not have to follow this rule, and users connected to Teradata from ArcGIS can still view and publish the data. If you publish an editable feature service, users can edit the data.
- You must use the tessellation functions provided by Teradata to create and maintain a spatial index on a Teradata ST_Geometry column.
Teradata uses the tessellation spatial index with a predefined area of interest. Therefore, ArcGIS spatial operations that are based on dynamic inputs, such as zoom in, zoom out, and pan, cannot use the tessellation index. However, the tessellation index can be used in a query layer if the SQL statement used to define the query layer explicitly uses the tessellation index to query a subset of data based on an area of interest.
- ArcGIS requires a unique identification field to render features in a map and to publish web services. ArcGIS Pro prompts you to specify this unique ID field when you add a spatial table to the map.
ArcGIS tools do not insert new values into the unique ID fields in a database; rather, they rely on the database to insert values to the field. Since Teradata does not have a data type or built-in mechanism to populate values in an ID field, ArcGIS tools that create rows in a database table cannot be used with Teradata.
- As a Teradata user, you know that Teradata 14.x ST_Geometry only supports two-dimensional spatial data; therefore, you cannot paste spatial data that contains z- or m-coordinates into Teradata 14.x. Teradata 15.0 ST_Geometry supports z-coordinates but not m-coordinates; therefore, you cannot paste spatial data that contains m-coordinates into Teradata 15.0.
- In most cases, you store
large amounts of data in a Teradata Data Warehouse Appliance. To visualize, perform analyses, or publish data from an ArcGIS client, use a subset of data. How you do this depends on what you want to do with the data.
- If you are adding data to ArcGIS Pro for viewing and analysis within the map, add a query layer and define the query layer expression to return only a subset of the data.
- If you are adding data to ArcGIS Pro to publish a map image layer that references registered data, define a database view that contains only a subset of the data. Database views are stored in the database. You can use the Create Database View geoprocessing tool or an SQL client to define views.
- If you are adding data to ArcGIS Pro to publish a feature layer that references registered data, uncheck the option to Make newly added layers visible by default before adding your data to the map. Next, create a Definition Query for the layer that defines a subset of data using SQL. Once you have restricted the amount of data that displays on the map, make the layer visible and prepare your map for publishing.
Unless your map is set so that data is not automatically displayed when added, do not drag data directly from your database connection to the map if you have not already defined a subset of data. Extremely large datasets, as are normally stored in a data warehouse appliance, would take an inordinate amount of time to display on the map.
- If you use ArcGIS to add a feature class to your Teradata database and the spatial reference you specify for the feature class is not in the Teradata system table, ArcGIS adds a record to the Teradata SPATIAL_REF_SYS table and, consequently, the GEOMETRY_COLUMNS table.
This allows you to use more spatial references than are provided by default with Teradata. However, upgrades to major Teradata releases may drop these tables and re-create them with only default values in them.
Before you upgrade Teradata, you should always make a backup of your database. Be sure that this includes the records in these tables so you can restore them, if necessary, after a Teradata upgrade. You can follow this general procedure to back up and restore the SPATIAL_REF_SYS and GEOMETRY_COLUMNS records during a database upgrade operation:
- Create a backup of your database.
- Connect to a database in which you will make copies of the SPATIAL_REF_SYS and GEOMETRY_COLUMNS tables.
In this example, the database is named mybackupdb.
- Create backup copies of your tables.
In this example, source tables are in the sysspatial database.
CREATE TABLE mybackupdb.spatial_ref_sys AS sysspatial.spatial_ref_sys WITH DATA; CREATE TABLE mybackupdb.geometry_columns AS sysspatial.geometry_columns WITH DATA;
- Upgrade the Teradata source database.
- Connect to the database to which you copied the tables.
- Restore the tables to your upgraded database.
--Restore the geometry columns table. INSERT INTO sysspatial.geometry_columns SELECT * FROM mybackupdb.geometry_columns; --Restore the spatial_ref_sys table. INSERT INTO sysspatial.spatial_ref_sys SELECT * FROM mybackupdb.spatial_ref_sys MINUS SELECT * FROM sysspatial.spatial_ref_sys;
- Once the contents of the tables are restored, you can delete the backup copies of the tables.
DROP TABLE mybackupdb.spatial_ref_sys; DROP TABLE mybackupdb.geometry_columns;
- If necessary, regrant privileges on these tables to users who create data in the database.
See what versions of the Teradata Data Warehouse Appliance and client libraries are supported with ArcGIS Pro.
Cloud-based databases as a service
ArcGIS supports several cloud-based database-as-a-services offerings. For a list of the services currently supported, see the requirements for using ArcGIS with databases in the cloud.
Always co-locate your ArcGIS clients on the same cloud and in the same location (region) as your cloud databases.
ArcGIS clients that connect to most cloud-based database services require a database client.
Cloud data warehouses
ArcGIS supports several cloud data warehouses for query and analysis.
For optimal performance, co-locate your ArcGIS clients on the same cloud and in the same location (region) as your cloud data warehouse when connecting to the data in the data warehouse. Co-locate clients that access web services that use a snapshot of the data with the ArcGIS Server site where the service is running.
ArcGIS clients that connect to cloud data warehouses require you install client libraries provided by the cloud data warehouse vendor.