## Description

The Winkel II is a compromise pseudocylindrical map projection for world maps. It is an arithmetic mean of the projected coordinates of Mollweide and equidistant cylindrical projections. The meridians are ellipsoidal curves, producing the rounded shape of the map.

The projection was introduced by Oswald Winkel in 1918. It is available in ArcGIS Pro 1.0 and later and in ArcGIS Desktop 8.0 and later.

## Projection properties

The subsections below describe the Winkel II projection properties.

### Graticule

WInkel II is a pseudocylindric projection. The equator and the central meridian are projected as straight lines. The other meridians are ellipsoidal curves. The parallels are unequally distributed straight lines perpendicular to the central meridian. The poles project as straight lines. The lengths of the central meridian and both pole lines depend on the value of the standard parallel. The graticule is always symmetric across the equator and the central meridian.

### Distortion

The Winkel II projection is neither conformal nor equal-area. It generally distorts shapes, areas, distances, directions, and angles. The scale is constant along any given parallel and it is true along the standard parallel. Distortion values are symmetric across the equator and the central meridian.

## Usage

The Winkel II projection is appropriate for general world maps.

## Limitations

Winkel II is supported on spheres only. For an ellipsoid, the semimajor axis is used for the radius.

## Parameters

Winkel II parameters are as follows:

- False Easting
- False Northing
- Central Meridian
- Standard Parallel 1

## Source

Snyder, J. P. (1993). Flattening the Earth. Two Thousand Years of Map Projections. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.