Input raster or feature source data
The input source locations.
This is a raster or feature dataset that identifies the cells or locations from or to which the least accumulated cost distance for every output cell location is calculated.
For rasters, the input type can be integer or floating point.
If the input source raster is floating point, the Input value raster parameter must be set, and it must be integer. The value raster will take precedence over the Source field parameter setting.
|Raster Layer; Feature Layer|
Input cost raster
A raster defining the impedance or cost to move planimetrically through each cell.
The value at each cell location represents the cost-per-unit distance for moving through the cell. Each cell location value is multiplied by the cell resolution while also compensating for diagonal movement to obtain the total cost of passing through the cell.
The values of the cost raster can be integer or floating point, but they cannot be negative or zero (you cannot have a negative or zero cost).
Input surface raster
A raster defining the elevation values at each cell location.
The values are used to calculate the actual surface distance covered when passing between cells.
Input horizontal raster
A raster defining the horizontal direction at each cell.
The values on the raster must be integers ranging from 0 to 360, with 0 degrees being north, or toward the top of the screen, and increasing clockwise. Flat areas should be given a value of -1. The values at each location will be used in conjunction with the Horizontal factor to determine the horizontal cost incurred when moving from a cell to its neighbors.
Specifies the relationship between the horizontal cost factor and the horizontal relative moving angle (HRMA).
There are several factors with modifiers from which to select that identify a defined horizontal factor graph. Additionally, a table can be used to create a custom graph. The graphs are used to identify the horizontal factor used in calculating the total cost for moving into a neighboring cell.
In the descriptions below, two acronyms are used: HF stands for horizontal factor, which defines the horizontal difficulty encountered when moving from one cell to the next; and HRMA stands for horizontal relative moving angle, which identifies the angle between the horizontal direction from a cell and the moving direction.
The Horizontal factor options are as follows:
Modifiers to the horizontal factors are the following:
Input vertical raster
A raster defining the z-values for each cell location.
The values are used for calculating the slope used to identify the vertical factor incurred when moving from one cell to another.
Specifies the relationship between the vertical cost factor and the vertical relative moving angle (VRMA).
There are several factors with modifiers from which to select that identify a defined vertical factor graph. Additionally, a table can be used to create a custom graph. The graphs are used to identify the vertical factor used in calculating the total cost for moving into a neighboring cell.
In the descriptions below, two acronyms are used: VF stands for vertical factor, which defines the vertical difficulty encountered in moving from one cell to the next; and VRMA stands for vertical relative moving angle, which identifies the slope angle between the FROM or processing cell and the TO cell.
The Vertical factor options are as follows:
Modifiers to the vertical keywords are the following:
The threshold that the accumulative cost values cannot exceed.
If an accumulative cost distance value exceeds this value, the output value for the cell location will be NoData. The maximum distance is the extent for which the accumulative cost distances are calculated.
The default distance is to the edge of the output raster.
Input value raster
The input integer raster that identifies the zone values that will be used for each input source location.
For each source location (cell or feature), the Input value raster value will be assigned to all cells allocated to the source location for the computation. The value raster will take precedence over the Source field parameter setting.
The field used to assign values to the source locations. It must be of integer type.
If the Input value raster parameter has been set, the values in that input will have precedence over the Source field parameter setting.
Output distance raster
The output path distance raster.
The output path distance raster identifies, for each cell, the least accumulative cost distance, over a cost surface to the identified source locations, while accounting for surface distance as well as horizontal and vertical surface factors.
A source can be a cell, a set of cells, or one or more feature locations.
The output raster is of floating-point type.
Output backlink raster
The output cost backlink raster.
The backlink raster contains values 0 through 8, which define the direction or identify the next neighboring cell (the succeeding cell) along the least accumulative cost path from a cell to reach its least-cost source, while accounting for surface distance as well as horizontal and vertical surface factors.
If the path is to pass into the right neighbor, the cell will be assigned the value 1, 2 for the lower right diagonal cell, and continue clockwise. The value 0 is reserved for source cells.
Multiplier to apply to costs
The multiplier to apply to the cost values.
This allows for control of the mode of travel or the magnitude at a source. The greater the multiplier, the greater the cost to move through each cell.
The values must be greater than zero. The default is 1.
The starting cost from which to begin the cost calculations.
Allows for the specification of the fixed cost associated with a source. Instead of starting at a cost of zero, the cost algorithm will begin with the value set by Start cost.
The values must be zero or greater. The default is 0.
Accumulative cost resistance rate
This parameter simulates the increase in the effort to overcome costs as the accumulative cost increases. It is used to model fatigue of the traveler. The growing accumulative cost to reach a cell is multiplied by the resistance rate and added to the cost to move into the subsequent cell.
It is a modified version of a compound interest rate formula that is used to calculate the apparent cost of moving through a cell. As the value of the resistance rate increases, it increases the cost of the cells that are visited later. The greater the resistance rate, the more additional cost is added to reach the next cell, which is compounded for each subsequent movement. Since the resistance rate is similar to a compound rate and generally the accumulative cost values are very large, small resistance rates are suggested, such as 0.02, 0.005, or even smaller, depending on the accumulative cost values.
The values must be zero or greater. The default is 0.
The cost capacity for the traveler for a source.
The cost calculations continue for each source until the specified capacity is reached.
The values must be greater than zero. The default capacity is to the edge of the output raster.
Specifies the direction of the traveler when applying horizontal and vertical factors and the source resistance rate.
|Label||Explanation||Data Type||Output allocation raster|
The output path distance allocation raster.
This raster identifies the zone of each source location (cell or feature) that could be reached with the least accumulative cost, while accounting for surface distance and horizontal and vertical cost factors.
The output raster is of integer type.