Use classes in Python

クラスは建築の青写真と同様です。青写真には対象物の作成方法のフレームワークが示されます。クラスはオブジェクトの作成に使用でき、多くの場合、インスタンスとして参照できます。SpatialReference クラスや Extent クラスなどの ArcPy クラスは、ジオプロセシング ツールのパラメーターを実行するためのショートカットとしてよく使用されます。ArcPy クラスを使用しない場合、これらのパラメーターはもっと複雑な文字列が必要になります。

ArcPy includes several classes, such as SpatialReference, ValueTable, and Point. Once instantiated, A class's properties and methods can be used. Classes include one or more methods called constructors. A constructor is a method for initializing a new instance of a class. In the example below, SpatialReference(prjFile) is the class constructor—it creates the spatialRef object by reading a projection file.

import arcpy

prjFile = "c:/projections/North America Equidistant Conic.prj"
spatialRef = arcpy.SpatialReference(prjFile)

As with most other classes, SpatialReference contains a number of methods and properties. Building on the previous sample, you can access the properties of spatialRef.

import arcpy

prjFile = "c:/projections/North America Equidistant Conic.prj"
spatialRef = arcpy.SpatialReference(prjFile)

# Print the SpatialReference's name, and type

Classes can be used repeatedly. In the following example, two unique point objects are created using the Point class:

import arcpy

pointA = arcpy.Point(2.0, 4.5)
pointB = arcpy.Point(3.0, 7.0)

The CreateObject function can also be used to create many of the objects that can be created using classes. However, using classes is easier and more readable.

Use classes with geoprocessing tools

Tool parameters are usually defined using simple text strings. Dataset names, paths, keywords, field names, tolerances, and domain names can be specified using a quoted string.

Some parameters are harder to define using simple strings; they are more complex parameters that require many properties. Instead of using long, complicated text strings to define these parameters, you can use classes (for example, SpatialReference, ValueTable, and Point classes). The documentation for each tool contains a scripting example of how each tool parameter is defined and used.

In the following example, a SpatialReference object is created and used to define the output coordinate system of a new feature class created using the Create Feature Class tool.

import arcpy

inputWorkspace = "c:/temp"
outputName =  "rivers.shp"

prjFile = "c:/projections/North America Equidistant Conic.prj"
spatialRef = arcpy.SpatialReference(prjFile)

# Run CreateFeatureclass using the spatial reference object
arcpy.CreateFeatureclass_management(inputWorkspace, outputName, "POLYLINE", 

The string equivalent for this parameter is similar to this: PROJCS["North_America_Equidistant_Conic",GEOGCS["GCS_North_American_1983",DATUM["D_North_American_1983",SPHEROID["GRS_1980",6378137.0,298.257222101]],PRIMEM["Greenwich",0.0],UNIT["Degree",0.0174532925199433]],PROJECTION["Equidistant_Conic"],PARAMETER["False_Easting",0.0],PARAMETER["False_Northing",0.0],PARAMETER["Central_Meridian",-96.0],PARAMETER["Standard_Parallel_1",20.0],PARAMETER["Standard_Parallel_2",60.0],PARAMETER["Latitude_Of_Origin",40.0],UNIT["Meter",1.0]];IsHighPrecision


  1. Use classes with geoprocessing tools